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Frequently Asked Questions (Faqs)

Frequently Asked Questions (Faqs)

This is a natural and fundamental process in which a liquid is flown through a semi permeable membrane, which blocks the transfusion of salts/solutes through this membrane.

Reverse Osmosis :

“Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) is the most economical method of removing 95% to 99% of all contaminants. The pore structure of R.O. Membranes is much tighter than that of UF membranes. RO membranes are capable of rejecting practically all particles, bacteria and organics >200 Dalton molecular weight (including pyrogens) at a rate close to 99%. Natural osmosis occurs when solutions with two different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. Osmotic pressure drives water through the membrane; the water dilutes the more concentrated solution, and the end result is equilibrium.

In water purification systems, hydraulic pressure is applied to the concentrated solution to counteract the osmotic pressure. Pure water is driven from the concentrated solution at a flow rate proportional to applied pressure and colleted downstream of the membrane.

RO also involves an ionic exclusion process. Only solvent (i.e. water molecules) is allowed to pass through the semi-permeable RO membrane, while virtually all ions and dissolved molecules are retained (including salts and organic molecules such as sugars). The semi-permeable membrane rejects salts (ions) by a charge phenomenon action: the greater the charge, the greater the rejection. Therefore, the membrane rejects nearly all (>99%) strongly ionized polyvalent ions but only 95% of the weakly ionized monovalent ions like sodium. Salt rejection increases significantly with applied pressure up to 5 bar.

About Water softener :
Water softener is an appliance that uses sodium chloride, also known as salt, to treat hard water. Hard water contains an excess of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, manganese and iron that can be an expensive nuisance for your home. These minerals are taken up in the underground water supply and, as the water is heated in your home, they crystallize and stubbornly stick to household surfaces. Sodium chloride, the effective component of water softener, works to replace these unwanted minerals.

A strongly acidic cation exchanger in sodium form is used in softener to exchange sodium ions for the hardness forming calcium and magnesium, thus producing soft water. At the end of each service cycle, the ion exchanger is regenerated with sodium chloride solution, after which the Softener is ready for the next service cycle.

For introducing the brine into the softener, a hydraulic ejector with control valve, suction and delivery piping are provided. A combined salt tank which can hold sufficient quantity of salt for a number of regeneration is provided along with the softener

About DM Plant :

The process used for removal of all dissolved salts from water is referred to asdeionization. Deionization requires the flow of water through two ion exchange materials in order to effect the removal of all salt content.

Deionization The terms demineralization and deionization are used somewhat interchangeably by the industry. While the term demineralization is generally better understood, deionization is especially apt.

How are salts Removed from Water?

Ions are removed from water through a series of chemical reactions.These reactions take place as the water passes through ion exchangeresin beds. In the regenerated form, cation resin contains hydrogen (H+) ions on its surface which are exchanged for positively charged ions. Anion resin contains hydroxide (OH-) ions on its surface which are exchanged for negatively charged ions. The final product of these two exchanges, H+ and OH-, form water molecules.

About UV Treatment :

Ultraviolet (U.V.) disinfection of water consists of a purely physical, chemical-free process. UV-C radiation in particular, with a wavelength in the 240nm to 280 nanometers range, attacks the vital DNA of the bacteria directly. The radiation initiates a photochemical reaction that destroys the genetic information contained in the DNA. The bacteria lose their reproductive capability and are destroyed. Even parasites such as Cryptosporidia or Giardia, which are extremely resistant to chemical disinfectants, are efficiently reduced. UV can also be used to remove chlorine and chlormaine species from water ; this process is called photolysis, and requires a higher dose than normal disinfection. The sterilized microorganisms are not removed from the water. UV disinfection does not remove dissolved organics, inorganic compounds or particles in the water. However, UV-oxidation processes can be used to simultaneously destroy trace chemical contaminants and provide high-level disinfection.

About Ozonation :

In Ozonation, ozone is produced by a generator and pumped through the water to be treated, it oxidizes contaminants and is effective in removing bacteria and microorganisms. Ozone units may also remove other contaminants like organic pesticides. Additional filtration is needed to remove parasites and particulate matter. It offers some residual protection against re-contamination, but this effect is short-lived. This technology is easy to install and maintain.

About Centrifugal pumps :

A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through piping. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits into the downstream piping. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through smaller heads

About Submersible pumps :

A Submersible Pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation, a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface. Submersible pumps push fluid to the surface as opposed to jet pumps having to pull fluids. Submersibles are more efficient than jet pumps.

About Fire fighting pumps :

A fire pump is a part of a fire sprinkler system's water supply and can be powered by electric, diesel or steam. The pump intake is either connected to the public underground water supply piping, or a static water source (e.g., tank, reservoir, lake). The pump provides water flow at a higher pressure to the sprinkler system risers and hose standpipes. A fire pump is tested and listed for its use specifically for fire service by a third-party testing and listing agency, such as UL or FM Global. The main code that governs fire pump installations in North America is the National Fire Protection Association’s NFPA 20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Fire Pumps for Fire Protection.

About Dosing Pumps :

A metering pump is a pump used to pump liquids at adjustable flow rates which are precise when averaged over time. Delivery of fluids in precise adjustable flow rates is sometimes called metering. The term "metering pump" is based on the application or use rather than the exact kind of pump used, although a couple types of pumps are far more suitable than most other types of pumps.

Although metering pumps can pump water, they are often used to pump chemicals, solutions, or other liquids. Many metering pumps are rated to be able to pump into a high discharge pressure. They are typically made to meter at flow rates which are practically constant (when averaged over time) within a wide range of discharge (outlet) pressure. Manufacturers provide each of their models of metering pumps with a maximum discharge pressure rating against which each model is guaranteed to be able to pump against. An engineer, designer, or user should ensure that the pressure and temperature ratings and wetted pump materials are compatible for the application and the type of liquid being pumped.

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